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How to use this Website?

This website is for medical and paramedical professionals working in the field of spinal cord injuries. It contains learning modules for the whole team as well as for doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, assistive technologists, social workers, psychologists and peer counsellors. The modules are intended for medical and paramedical students and junior clinicians. Others who have yet not assimilated sufficient knowledge on comprehensive management.

Neurogenic bowel dysfunction

  1. Clinical practice guidelines: Neurogenic bowel management in adults with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord Medicine Consortium. The journal of spinal cord medicine 1998; 21: 248-293.
  2. Christensen P, Krogh K. Transanal irrigation for disordered defecation: a systematic review. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology 2010; 45: 517-527.
  3. Coggrave M, Norton C, Wilson-Barnett J. Management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction in the community after spinal cord injury: a postal survey in the United Kingdom. Spinal cord 2009; 47: 323-330; quiz 331-333-323-330; quiz 331-333.
  4. Coggrave MJ, Ingram RM, Gardner BP, Norton CS. The impact of stoma for bowel management after spinal cord injury. Spinal cord 2012.
  5. Coggrave MJ, Norton C. The need for manual evacuation and oral laxatives in the management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury: a randomized controlled trial of a stepwise protocol. Spinal cord 2010; 48: 504-510.
  6. Cosman BC, Vu TT. Lidocaine anal block limits autonomic dysreflexia during anorectal procedures in spinal cord injury: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diseases of the colon and rectum 2005; 48: 1556-1561.
  7. Creasey GH, Grill JH, Korsten M, U HS, Betz R, Anderson R et al. An implantable neuroprosthesis for restoring bladder and bowel control to patients with spinal cord injuries: a multicenter trial. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 2001; 82: 1512-1519.
  8. DeLisa JA, Kirshblum S. A review: frustrations and needs in clinical care of spinal cord injury patients. The journal of spinal cord medicine 1997; 20: 384-390.
  9. Emmanuel A. Review of the efficacy and safety of transanal irrigation for neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Spinal cord 2010; 48: 664-673.
  10. Furusawa K, Sugiyama H, Tokuhiro A, Takahashi M, Nakamura T, Tajima F. Topical anesthesia blunts the pressor response induced by bowel manipulation in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury. Spinal cord 2009; 47: 144-148.
  11. Gerharz EW, Vik V, Webb G, Woodhouse CR. The in situ appendix in the Malone antegrade continence enema procedure for faecal incontinence. British journal of urology 1997; 79: 985-986.
  12. Glickman S, Kamm MA. Bowel dysfunction in spinal-cord-injury patients. Lancet 1996; 347: 1651-1653.
  13. Gstaltner K, Rosen H, Hufgard J, Märk R, Schrei K. Sacral nerve stimulation as an option for the treatment of faecal incontinence in patients suffering from cauda equina syndrome. Spinal cord 2008; 46: 644-647.
  14. Han TR, Kim JH, Kwon BS. Chronic gastrointestinal problems and bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal cord 1998; 36: 485-490.
  15. Harari D, Sarkarati M, Gurwitz JH, McGlinchey-Berroth G, Minaker KL. Constipation-related symptoms and bowel program concerning individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal cord 1997; 35: 394-401.
  16. Heaton KW, Radvan J, Cripps H, Mountford RA, Braddon FE, Hughes AO. Defecation frequency and timing, and stool form in the general population: a prospective study. Gut 1992; 33: 818-824.
  17. Jarrett MED, Mowatt G, Glazener CMA, Fraser C, Nicholls RJ, Grant AM et al. Systematic review of sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence and constipation. The British journal of surgery 2004; 91: 1559-1569.
  18. Kirk PM, King RB, Temple R, Bourjaily J, Thomas P. Long-term follow-up of bowel management after spinal cord injury. SCI nursing: a publication of the American Association of Spinal Cord Injury Nurses 1997; 14: 56-63.
  19. Korsten MA, Singal AK, Monga A, Chaparala G, Khan AM, Palmon R et al. Anorectal stimulation causes increased colonic motor activity in subjects with spinal cord injury. The journal of spinal cord medicine 2007; 30: 31-35.
  20. Krogh K, Christensen P, Sabroe S, Laurberg S. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction score. Spinal cord 2006; 44: 625-631.
  21. Krogh K, Mosdal C, Laurberg S. Gastrointestinal and segmental colonic transit times in patients with acute and chronic spinal cord lesions. Spinal cord 2000; 38: 615-621.
  22. Krogh K, Nielsen J, Djurhuus JC, Mosdal C, Sabroe S, Laurberg S. Colorectal function in patients with spinal cord lesions. Diseases of the colon and rectum 1997; 40: 1233-1239.
  23. Norton C, Kamm MA. Anal sphincter biofeedback and pelvic floor exercises for faecal incontinence in adults--a systematic review. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 2001; 15: 1147-1154.
  24. Rosito O, Nino-Murcia M, Wolfe VA, Kiratli BJ, Perkash I. The effects of colostomy on the quality of life in patients with spinal cord injury: a retrospective analysis. The journal of spinal cord medicine 2002; 25: 174-183.
  25. Stiens SA, Bergman SB, Goetz LL. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury: clinical evaluation and rehabilitative management. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 1997; 78: S86-102-S86-102.