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How to use this Website?

This website is for medical and paramedical professionals working in the field of spinal cord injuries. It contains learning modules for the whole team as well as for doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, assistive technologists, social workers, psychologists and peer counsellors. The modules are intended for medical and paramedical students and junior clinicians. Others who have yet not assimilated sufficient knowledge on comprehensive management.

Respiratory: assessing and treating

1.         Anderson JL, Hasney KM, Beaumont NE. Systematic review of techniques to enhance peak cough flow and maintain vital capacity in neuromuscular disease: the case for mechanical insufflation–exsufflation. Phy Ther Reviews 2005; 10: 25-33.

2.         Boaventura CD, Gastaldi AC, Silveira JM, Santos PR, Guimaraes RC, De Lima LC. Effect of an abdominal binder on the efficacy of respiratory muscles in seated and supine tetraplegic patients. Physiotherapy 2003; 89: 290-295.

3.         Brooks D, O'Brien K, Geddes EL, Crowe J, Reid WD. Is inspiratory muscle training effective for individuals with cervical spinal cord injury? A qualitative systematic review. Clin Rehabil 2005; 19: 237-246.

4.         Burns S, Little J, Hussey J, Lyman P, Lakshminarayanan S. Sleep apnea syndrome in chronic spinal cord injury: associated factors and treatment. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000; 81: 1334-1339.

5.         Chatwin M, Ross E, Hart N, Nickol A, Polkey MI, Simonds AK. Cough augmentation with mechanical insufflation/exsufflation in patients with neuromuscular weakness. Eur Respir J 2003; 21: 502-508.

6.         Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Respiratory management following spinal cord injury: a clinical practice guideline for health-care professionals. 2005, Washington (DC): Paralyzed Veterans of America.

7.         Estenne M, Van Muylem A, Gorini M, Kinnear W, Heilporn A, De Troyer A. Effects of abdominal strapping on forced expiration in tetraplegic patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 157: 95-98.

8.         Gutierrex CJ, Harrow J, Haines F. Using an evidence-based protocol to guide rehabilitation and weaning of ventilator-dependent cervical spinal cord injury patients. J Rehabil Res Dev 2003; 40: 99-110.

9.         Jaeger RJ, Turba RM, Yarkony GM, Roth EJ. Cough in spinal cord injured patients: comparison of three methods to produce cough. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993; 74: 1358-1361.

10.       Kang SW, Shin JC, Park CI, Moon JH, Rha DW, Cho D-h. Relationship between inspiratory muscle strength and cough capacity in cervical spinal cord injured patients. Spinal Cord 2005; 44: 242–248.

11.       Liaw MY, Lin MC, Cheng PT, Wong MK, Tang FT. Resistive inspiratory muscle training: its effectiveness in patients with acute complete cervical cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000; 81: 752-756.

12.       McCool FD. Global physiology and pathophysiology of cough: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 2006; 129: 48S-53S.

13.       McCool FD, Rosen MJ. Nonpharmacologic airway clearance therapies: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 2006; 129: S250-S259.

14.       McCrory DC, Samsa GP, Hamilton BB, Govert JA, Matchar DB, Goslin RE. et al. Treatment of pulmonary disease following cervical spinal cord injury. In: Evidence report/technology assessment. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2001, Duke Evidence-based Practice Center, Center for Clinical Health Policy Research. pp 1-60.

15.       Peterson WP, Kirshblum S. Pulmonary management of spinal cord injury. In: Kirshblum S, Campagnolo DI, and DeLisa JA (ed). Spinal cord medicine. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins: Philadelphia 2002, pp 108-122.

16.       Rutchik A, Weissman AR, Almenoff PL, Spungen AM, Bauman WA, Grimm DR. Resistive inspiratory muscle training in subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 79: 293-297.

17.       Schilero GJ, Spungen AM, Bauman WA, Radulovic M, Lesser M. Pulmonary function and spinal cord injury. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2009; 166: 129-141.

18.       Sheel AW, Reid WD, Townson AF, Ayas N. Respiratory management following spinal cord injury. In: Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence, Eng JJ, et al., Editors. 2006: Vancouver. pp 8.1-8.30.

19.       Sivasothy P, Brown L, Smith IE, Shneerson JM. Effect of manually assisted cough and mechanical insufflation on cough flow of normal subjects, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and patients with respiratory muscle weakness. Thorax 2001; 56: 438-444.

20.       Sorenson HM, Shelledy DC, AARC. AARC clinical practice guideline. Intermittent positive pressure breathing - 2003 revision & update. Respir Care 2003; 48: 540-546.

21.       Wang AY, Jaeger RJ, Yarkony GM, Turba RM. Cough in spinal cord injured patients: the relationship between motor level and peak expiratory flow. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 299-302.

22.       Whitney J, Harden B, Keilty S. Assisted cough. A new technique. Physiotherapy 2002; 88: 201-207.