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How to use this Website?

This website is for medical and paramedical professionals working in the field of spinal cord injuries. It contains learning modules for the whole team as well as for doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, assistive technologists, social workers, psychologists and peer counsellors. The modules are intended for medical and paramedical students and junior clinicians. Others who have yet not assimilated sufficient knowledge on comprehensive management.

Strength: assessing and treating

1.         Ada L, Dorsch S, Canning C. Strengthening interventions increase strength and improve activity after stroke: a systematic review. Aust J Physiother 2006; 52: 242-248.

2.         Ditunno JF, Cohen ME, Hauck WW, Jackson AB, Sipski ML. Recovery of upper-extremity strength in complete and incomplete tetraplegia: a multicenter study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000; 81: 389-393.

3.         Feigenbaum MS, Pollock ML. Prescription of resistance training for health and disease. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31: 38-45.

4.         Glinsky J, Harvey L, Korten M, Drury C, Chee S, Gandevia SC. Short-term progressive resistance exercise may not be effective for increasing wrist strength in people with tetraplegia: a randomised controlled trial. Aust J Physiother 2008; 54: 103-108.

5.         Glinsky J, Harvey L, van Es P. Efficacy of electrical stimulation to increase muscle strength in people with neurological conditions: A systematic review. Physiother Res Int 2007; 12: 175-194.

6.         Glinsky J, Harvey L, van Es P, Chee S, Gandevia SC. The addition of electrical stimulation to progressive resistance training does not enhance the wrist strength of people with tetraplegia: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil 2009; 23: 696-704.

7.         Hartkopp A, Harridge SD, Mizuno M, Ratkevicius A, Quistorff B, Kjaer M. et al. Effect of training on contractile and metabolic properties of wrist extensors in spinal cord-injured individuals. Muscle and Nerve 2003; 27: 72-80.

8.         Harvey L, Fornusek C, Bowden J, Pontifex N, Glinsky J, Middleton J. et al. Electrical stimulation plus progressive resistance training for leg strength in spinal cord injury: A randomized-controlled trial. Online publication 12 January 2010; doi: 10.1038/sc.2009.191. Spinal Cord 2010: .

9.         Hislop HJ, Montgomery J. Daniels and Worthingham's muscle testing: techniques of manual examination. 7th ed. 2002, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

10.       Jacobs PL, Nash MS. Exercise recommendations for individuals with spinal cord injury. Sports Med 2004; 34: 727-751.

11.       Kraemer WJ, Adams K, Cafarelli E, Dudley GA, Dooly C, Feigenbaum MS. et al. American College of Sports Medicine. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34: 364-380.

12.       Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Fundamentals of resistance training: progression and exercise prescription. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004; 36: 674-688.

13.       Rhea MR, Alvar BA, Burkett LN, Ball SD. A meta-analysis to determine the dose response for strength development. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003; 35: 456–464.

14.       Taylor NF, J DK, Damiano DL. Progressive resistance exercise in physical therapy: a summary of systematic reviews. Phys Ther 2005; 85: 1208-1223.