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How to use this Website?

This website is for medical and paramedical professionals working in the field of spinal cord injuries. It contains learning modules for the whole team as well as for doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, assistive technologists, social workers, psychologists and peer counsellors. The modules are intended for medical and paramedical students and junior clinicians. Others who have yet not assimilated sufficient knowledge on comprehensive management.


1.         Adams MM, Ginis KAM, Hicks AL. The Spinal Cord Injury Spasticity Evaluation Tool: Development and Evaluation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007; 88: 1185-1192.

2.         Alexander MS, Anderson KD, Biering-Sorensen F, Blight AR, Brannon R, Bryce TN. et al. Outcome measures in spinal cord injury: recent assessments and recommendations for future directions. Spinal Cord 2009; 47: 582-591.

3.         Berry C, Kennedy P. A psychometric analysis of the Needs Assessment Checklist (NAC). Spinal Cord 2002; 41: 490-501.

4.         Campbell J, Kendall M. Investigating the suitability of the clinical outcome variables scale (COVS) as a mobility outcome measure in spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Physiother Can 2003; 55: 135-144.

5.         Catz A, Itzkovich M, Steinberg F, Philo O, Ring H, Ronen J. et al. The Catz-Itzkovich SCIM: a revised version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure. Disabil Rehabil 2001; 23: 263-268.

6.         Dedding C, Cardol M, Eyssen IC, Dekker J, Beelen A. Validity of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure: a client-centred outcome measurement. Clin Rehabil 2004; 18: 660-667.

7.         Demers L, Weiss-Lambrou R, Ska B. Development of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology (QUEST). Assist Technol 1996; 8: 3-13.

8.         Demers L, Weiss-Lambrou R, Ska B. Item analysis of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST). Assist Technol 2000; 12: 96-105.

9.         Ditunno JF, Cohen ME, Hauck WW, Jackson AB, Sipski ML. Recovery of upper-extremity strength in complete and incomplete tetraplegia: a multicenter study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000; 81: 389-393.

10.       Ditunno JF, Ditunno PL, Graziani V, Scivoletto G, Bernardi M, Castellano V. et al. Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI): an international multicenter validity and reliability study. Spinal Cord 2000; 38: 234-243.

11.       Ditunno PL, Dittunno JF. Walking index for spinal cord injury (WISCI II): scale revision. Spinal Cord 2001; 39: 654-656.

12.       Field-Fote EC, Fluet GG, Schafer SD, Schneider EM, Smith R, Downey PA. et al. The Spinal Cord Injury Functional Ambulation Inventory (SCI-FAI). J Rehabil Med 2001; 33: 177-181.

13.       Forchheimer M, McAweeney M, Tate DG. Use of the SF-36 among persons with spinal cord injury. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2004; 83: 390-395.

14.       Heerkens Y, Van der Brug Y, Ten Napel H, Van Ravensberg D. Past and future use of the ICF (former ICIDH) by nursing and allied health professionals. Disabil Rehabil 2003; 25: 620-627.

15.       Itzkovich M, Gelernter I, Biering-Sorensen F, Weeks C, Laramee MT, Craven BC. et al. The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) version III: reliability and validity in a multi-center international study. Disabil Rehabil 2007; 29: 1926-1933.

16.       Kilkens OJ, Post MW, Dallmeijer AJ, Seelen HA, van der Woude LH. Wheelchair skills tests: a systematic review. Clin Rehabil 2003; 17: 418-430.

17.       Land NE, Odding E, Duivenvoorden HJ, Bergen MP, Stam HJ. Tetraplegia Hand Activity Questionnaire (THAQ): the development, assessment of arm-hand function-related activities in tetraplegic patients with a spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2004; 42: 294-301.

18.       Law M, Baptiste S, Carswell AC, McColl MA, Polatajko H, Pollock N. Canadian occupational performance measure. (ed). CAOT Publications ACE 1998.

19.       Law M, Baptiste S, McColl M, Opzoomer A, Polatajko H, Pollock N. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure: an outcome measure for occupational therapy. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy 1990; 57: 82-87.

20.       Marciello MA, Herbison GJ, Ditunno JF, Marino RJ, Cohen ME. Wrist strength measured by myometry as an indicator of functional independence. J Neurotrauma 1995; 12: 99-106.

21.       Marino RJ, Goin JE. Development of a short-form Quadriplegia Index of Function Scale. Spinal Cord 1999; 37: 289-296.

22.       Marino RJ, Shea JA, Stineman MG. The Capabilities of Upper Extremity instrument: reliability and validity of a measure of functional limitation in tetraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 79: 1512-1521.

23.       Marino RJ, Stineman MG. Functional assessment in spinal cord injury. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, ed. E AD. Vol. 1. 1996, MD: Aspen: Gaithersburg. 32-45.

24.       Middleton JW, Harvey LA, Batty J, Cameron I, Quirk R, Winstanley J. Five additional mobility and locomotor items to improve responsiveness of the FIM in wheelchair-dependent individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2006; 44: 495-504.

25.       Mountain AD, Kirby RL, Smith C. The wheelchair skills test, version 2.4: Validity of an algorithm-based questionnaire version. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85: 416-423.

26.       Post MW, Gerritsen J, Diederikst JP, DeWittet LP. Measuring health status of people who are wheelchair-dependent: validity of the Sickness Impact Profile 68 and the Nottingham Health Profile. Disabil Rehabil 2001; 23: 245-253.

27.       Post MWM, Van Lieshout G, Seelen HAM, Snoek GJ, IJzerman MJ, Pons C. Measurement properties of the short version of the Van Lieshout test for arm/hand function of persons with tetraplegia after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2006; 44: 763-771.

28.       Spooren AI, Janssen-Potten YJ, Kerckhofs E, Seelen HA. Outcome of motor training programmes on arm and hand functioning in patients with cervical spinal cord injury according to different levels of the ICF: a systematic review. J Rehabil Med 2009; 41: 497-505.

29.       Stineman MG, Marino RJ, Deutsch A, Granger CV, Maislin G. A functional strategy for classifying patients after traumatic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1999; 37: 717-725.

30.       van Hedel HJ, Wirz M, Dietz V. Assessing walking ability in subjects with spinal cord injury: validity and reliability of 3 walking tests. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005; 86: 190-196.

31.       Wuolle KS, Van Doren CL, Thrope GB, Keith MW, Peckham PH. Development of a quantitative hand grasp and release test for patients with tetraplegia using a hand neuroprosthesis. J Hand Surg (Am) 1994; 19: 209-218.