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How to use this Website?

This website is for medical and paramedical professionals working in the field of spinal cord injuries. It contains learning modules for the whole team as well as for doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, assistive technologists, social workers, psychologists and peer counsellors. The modules are intended for medical and paramedical students and junior clinicians. Others who have yet not assimilated sufficient knowledge on comprehensive management.

Bowel care and management

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  2. Binnie NR, Smith AN, Creasey GH, Edmond P. Constipation associated with chronic spinal cord injury: the effect of pelvic parasympathetic stimulation by the Brindley stimulator. Paraplegia 1991; 29: 463-469.
  3. Brading AF, Ramalingam T. Mechanisms controlling normal defecation and the potential effects of spinal cord injury. Prog Brain Res 2006; 152: 345-358.
  4. Cameron KJ, Nyulasi IB, Collier GR, Brown DJ. Assessment of the effect of increased dietary fibre intake on bowel function in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1996; 34: 277-283.
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  6. Coggrave M, Burrows D, Durand MA. Progressive protocol in the bowel management of spinal cord injuries. Br J Nurs 2006; 15: 1108-1113.
  7. Coggrave M, Norton C, Wilson-Barnett J. Management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction in the community after spinal cord injury: a postal survey in the United Kingdom. Spinal Cord 2009; 47: 323-330.
  8. Coggrave M, Wiesel PH, Norton C. Management of faecal incontinence and constipation in adults with central neurological diseases. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 2006; CD002115.
  9. Connell AM, Frankel H, Guttmann L. The motility of the pelvic colon following complete lesions of the spinal cord. Paraplegia 1963; 1: 98-115.
  10. Correa GI, Rotter KP. Clinical evaluation and management of neurogenic bowel after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2000; 38: 301-308.
  11. Davis A, Nagelhout MJ, Hoban M, Barnard B. Bowel management: a quality assurance approach to upgrading programs. J Gerontol Nurs 1986; 12: 13-17.
  12. Denny-Brown D, Robertson EG. 'An investigation of the nervous control of defecation' by Denny-Brown and Robertson: a classic paper revisited. 1935. Colorectal Dis 2004; 6: 376-383.
  13. Furlan JC, Urbach DR, Fehlings MG. Optimal treatment for severe neurogenic bowel dysfunction after chronic spinal cord injury: a decision analysis. Br J Surg 2007; 94: 1139-1150.
  14. House JG, Stiens SA. Pharmacologically initiated defecation for persons with spinal cord injury: effectiveness of three agents. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997; 78: 1062-1065.
  15. Johnston TE, Betz RR, Smith BT, Benda BJ, Mulcahey MJ, Davis R et al. Implantable FES system for upright mobility and bladder and bowel function for individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2005; 43: 713-723.
  16. Kirk PM, King RB, Temple R, Bourjaily J, Thomas P. Long-term follow-up of bowel management after spinal cord injury. SCI Nurs 1997; 14: 56-63.
  17. Korsten MA, Fajardo NR, Rosman AS, Creasey GH, Spungen AM, Bauman WA. Difficulty with evacuation after spinal cord injury: colonic motility during sleep and effects of abdominal wall stimulation. J Rehabil Res Dev 2004; 41: 95-100.
  18. Krassioukov A, Eng JJ, Claxton G, Sakakibara BM, Shum S. Neurogenic bowel management after spinal cord injury: a systematic review of the evidence. Spinal Cord 2010; 48: 718-733.
  19. Krogh K, Perkash I, Stiens SA, Biering-Sørensen F. International bowel function basic spinal cord injury data set. Spinal Cord 2009; 47: 230-234.
  20. Lai JM, Chuang TY, Francisco GE, Strayer JR. Diversion colitis: a cause of abdominal discomfort in spinal cord injury patients with colostomy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997; 78: 670-671.
  21. Leduc BE, Spacek E, Lepage Y. Colonic transit time after spinal cord injury: any clinical significance? J Spinal Cord Med 2002; 25: 161-166.
  22. Lin VW, Nino-Murcia M, Frost F, Wolfe V, Hsiao I, Perkash I. Functional magnetic stimulation of the colon in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 167-173.
  23. Lin VWH, Kim KH, Hsiao I, Brown W. Functional magnetic stimulation facilitates gastric emptying. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83: 806-810.
  24. Longo WE, Ballantyne GH, Modlin IM. The colon, anorectum, and spinal cord patient. A review of the functional alterations of the denervated hindgut. Dis Colon Rectum  1989; 32: 261-267.
  25. Lynch AC, Wong C, Anthony A, Dobbs BR, Frizelle FA. Bowel dysfunction following spinal cord injury: a description of bowel function in a spinal cord-injured population and comparison with age and gender matched controls. Spinal Cord 2000; 38: 717-723.
  26. MacLeod JH. Biofeedback in the management of partial anal incontinence: a preliminary report. Dis Colon Rectum 1979; 22: 169-171.
  27. Malone PS, Ransley PG, Kiely EM. Preliminary report: the antegrade continence enema. Lancet 1990; 336: 1217-1218.
  28. Menardo G, Bausano G, Corazziari E, Fazio A, Marangi A, Genta V et al. Large-bowel transit in paraplegic patients. Dis Colon Rectum 1987; 30: 924-928.
  29. Mentes BB, Yüksel O, Aydin A, Tezcaner T, Leventoğlu A, Aytaç B. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence after partial spinal injury: preliminary report. Tech Coloproctol 2007; 11: 115-119.
  30. Multidisciplinary Association of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals. Guidelines for Management of Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction after Spinal Cord Injury. 2009
  31. Nelson AL, Malassigné P, Murray J. Comparison of seat pressures on three bowel care/shower chairs in spinal cord injury. SCI Nurs 1994; 11: 105-107.
  32. Puet TA, Jackson H, Amy S. Use of pulsed irrigation evacuation in the management of the neuropathic bowel. Spinal Cord 1997; 35: 694-699.
  33. Rasmussen OO. Anorectal function. Dis Colon Rectum 1994; 37: 386-403.
  34. Saltzstein RJ, Quebbeman E, Melvin JL. Anorectal injuries incident to enema administration. A recurring avoidable problem. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1988; 67: 186-188.
  35. Singal AK, Rosman AS, Bauman WA, Korsten MA. Recent concepts in the management of bowel problems after spinal cord injury. Adv Med Sci 2006; 51: 15-22.
  36. Stiens SA. Reduction in bowel program duration with polyethylene glycol based bisacodyl suppositories. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1995; 76: 674-677.
  37. Tramonte SM, Brand MB, Mulrow CD, Amato MG, O'Keefe ME, Ramirez G. The treatment of chronic constipation in adults. A systematic review. J Gen Intern Med. 1997; 12: 15-24.
  38. Tsai P-Y, Wang C-P, Chiu F-Y, Tsai Y-A, Chang Y-C, Chuang T-Y. Efficacy of functional magnetic stimulation in neurogenic bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury. J Rehabil Med 2009; 41: 41-47.