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How to use this Website?

This website is for medical and paramedical professionals working in the field of spinal cord injuries. It contains learning modules for the whole team as well as for doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, assistive technologists, social workers, psychologists and peer counsellors. The modules are intended for medical and paramedical students and junior clinicians. Others who have yet not assimilated sufficient knowledge on comprehensive management.

Endocrinology and Metabolism

 Allan CA, McLachan RI. Age related changes in testosterone and the role of replacement therapy in older men. Clin Endocrinol. 2004;60:653-670.

Ammann P, Rizzoli R. Bone strength and its determinants.Osteoporos Int. 2003;14 Suppl 3:S13-8.

Apstein MD, George BC. Serum lipids during the first year following acute spinal cord injury. Metabolism 1998; 47: 367-370.

Baird GS. Ionized calcium.Clin Chim Acta. 2011;412:696-701.

Bauman WA, Biering-Sørensen F, Krassioukov A. The international spinal cord injury endocrine and metabolic function basic data set.Spinal Cord. 2011 Oct;49(10):1068-72.

Bauman WA, La Fountaine MF, Spungen AM. Age-related prevalence of low testosterone in men with spinal cord injuryT J Spinal Cord Med.2014; 37(1):32-39.

Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in chronic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2001: 24: 266-277.

Bauman WA, Spungen AM. Endocrinology and metabolism of persons with spinal cord injury. In Spinal Cord Medicine. (S. Kirshblum, D.I. Campagnolo, and J. DeLisa, ed.) Lippincott Publications, New York, NY. 2002, pp. 164-180.

Bauman WA, Spungen AM, Flanagan S, Zhong YG, Alexander LR, Tsitouras PD.  Blunted growth hormone response to intravenous arginine in subjects with a spinal cord injury.  Horm Met Res 1994; 26: 152-156.

Bauman WA, Spungen AM, Schwartz E, Wang J, Pierson Jr RN. Continuous loss of bone in chronic immobilization: A monozygotic twin study. Osteopor Internat 1999; 10: 123-127.

Bauman WA, Wecht JM, Kirshblum S, Spungen AM, Morrison N, Cirnigliaro C, et al. Effect of pamidronate administration on bone in patients with acute spinal cord injury. Journal of Rehabil Res Develop 2005; 42(3): 305-13.

Bauman WA, Zhong YG, Schwartz E.  Vitamin D deficiency in veterans with chronic spinal cord injury. Metabolism 1995; 44: 1612-1616.

Bhasin S, Storer TW. Anabolic applications of androgens for functional limitations associated with aging and chronic illness. Front Horm Res 2009; 37: 163-182.

Biering-Sørensen F, Bohr HH, Schaadt OP. Longitudinal study of bone mineral content in the lumbar spine, the forearm and the lower extremities after spinal cord injury. Euro J Clin Invest 1990; 20: 330-335.

Biering-Sørensen, F, Charlifue, DeVivo M, Noonan V, Post M, et al. International spinal cord injury data set. Spinal Cord 2006; 44: 530-534.

Biering-Sørensen F, Burns AS, Curt A, Harvey LA, Jane Mulcahey M, Nance PW, Sherwood AM, Sisto SA. International spinal cord injury musculoskeletal basic data set.Spinal Cord. 2012; 50:797-802.

Binkley N, Krueger D. Evaluation and correction of low vitamin D status. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2008;6:95-99.31. Yki-Jarvinen H, Koivisto VA Effects of body composition on insulin sensitivity Diabetes 1983; 32: 965-969.

Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Hormones and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism in Williams Texbook of Endocrinology, 9th Edition  (JD Wilson, DW Foster, HM Kronenberg, PR Larsen, Ed) W.B.Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1998, p1182.

Bryson JE, Gourlay ML. Bisphosphonate use in acute and chronic spinal cord injury: a systematic review. J Spinal Cord Med 2009; 32: 215-25.

Bubbear JS, Gall A, Middleton FR, Ferguson-Pell M, Swaminathan R, Keen RW. Early treatment with zoledronic acid prevents bone loss at the hip following acute spinal cord injury. Osteoporos Int 2011; 22: 271-9.

Chen Y, DeVivo MJ, Roseman JM. Current trend and risk factors for kidney stones in persons with spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study. Spinal Cord 2000; 38: 346-353.

Claus-Walker J, Vallbona C, Carter RE, Lipscomb HS. Resting and stimulated endocrine function in human subjects with cervical cord transection. J Chron Dis 1971; 24: 193-207.

Claydon VE, Steeves JD, Krassioukov A. Orthostatic hypotension following spinal cord injury: understanding the clinical pathophysiology. Spinal Cord 2006; 44: 341-351.

Cryer PE, Weiss S. Reduced plasma norepinephrine response to standing in autonomic dysfunction. Archives of neurology. 1976;33(4):275-7.

Delmas PD. Markers of bone formation and resorption. In: Favus MJ, editor. Primer on the metabolic bone diseases and disorders of mineral metabolism. 2d ed. New York: Raven Press; 1993, p. 108–12.

DeVivo M, Biering-Sorensen, F, Charlifue, S, Noonan V, Post M, et al. International spinal cord injury data set. Spinal Cord 2006; 44: 535-540.

Doty SB, DiCarlo EF. Pathophysiology of immobilization osteoporosis. Curr Opin Orthoped 1995; 6: 45-49.

Eser P, Frotzler A, Zehnder Y, Wick L, Knecht H, et al. Relationship between the duration of paralysis and bone structure: a pQCT study of spinal cord injured individuals. Bone 2004; 24: 869-880.

Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Follow-up Report on the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus. Diab Care 2003: 26: 3160-3167.

Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive summary of the third report of the national cholesterol education program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001; 285: 2486-2497.

Fonseca H, Moreira-Gonçalves D, Coriolano HJ, Duarte JA. Bone quality: the determinants of bone strength and fragility.Sports Med. 2014;44:37-53.

Freeman R. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 615-624.

Gilchrist NL, Frampton CM, Acland RH, Nicholls MG, March RL, Maguire P, Heard A, Marshall K. Alendronate prevents bone loss in patients with acute spinal cord injury: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92: 1385-90.

Gray A, Feldman HA, McKinlay JB, Longcope C. Age, disease, and changing sex hormone levels in middle-aged men: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991;73(5):1016-25.

Kaufman JM, Vermeulen A. The decline of androgen levels in elderly men and its clinical and therapeutic implications. Endocr Rev. 2005; 26:833-876.

Haffner SM, Stern MP, Hazuda HP, Mitchell BD, Patterson JK. Cardiovascular risk factors in confirmed prediabetic individuals.  Does the clock for coronary heart disease start ticking before the onset of clinical diabetes? JAMA 1990; 263: 2893-2898.

Huang TS, Wang YH, Lai JS, Chang CC, Lien IN. The hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axes in spinal cord-injured women. Metabolism 1996: 45: 718-722.

Klose M, Juul A, Struck J, Morgenthaler NG, Kosteljanetz M, et al. Acute and long-term pituitary insufficiency in traumatic brain injury: a prospective single-centre study. Clin Endocrinol 2007; 67: 598-606.

Kostovski E. Iversen PO, Birkeland K, Torjesen PA, Hjeltnes N. Decreased levels of testosterone and gonadotropins in men with long-standing tetraplegia. Spinal Cord 2008; 46: 559-564.

Krassioukov A., Claydon VE. The clinical problems in cardiovascular control following spinal cord injury: an overview. Prog Brain Res 2006; 152: 223-229.

Ladenson PW, Singer PA, Ain KB, Bagchi N, Bigos ST, et al. American Thyroid Association guidelines for detection of thyroid dysfunction. Arch Intern Med 2000: 160: 1573-1575.

Lecamwasam HS, Baboolal HA, Dunn PF. Acute adrenal insufficiency after large-dose glucocorticoids for spinal cord injury. Anesth Analg 2004;99:1813-1814.

Mathias CJ, Christensen NJ, Corbett JL, Frankel HL, Goodwin TJ, Peart WS. Plasma catecholamines, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone in tetraplegic man, horizontal and tilted. Clin Sci Mol Med. 1975;49(4):291-9.

Mathias CJ, Christensen NJ, Frankel HL, Peart WS. Renin release during head-up tilt occurs independently of sympathetic nervous activity in tetraplegic man. Clinical science. 1980;59(4):251-6.

Marik PE, Pastores SM, Annane D, Meduri GU, Sprung CL, et al. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 2008; 36:1937-1949.

Maynard FM, Imai K. Immobilization hypercalcemia in spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1977; 58: 16-24.

McIver B, Gorman CA. Euthyroid sick syndrome: an overview. Thyroid 1997; 7: 125-127.

Nance PW, Schryvers O, Leslie W, Ludwig S, Krahn J, Uebelhart D. Intravenous pamidronate attenuates bone density loss after acute spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80: 243-51.

Ng E, Chen T, Lam R, Sin D, Ying M.Three-dimensional ultrasound measurement of thyroid volume in asymptomatic male Chinese.Ultrasound Med Biol. 2004; 30:1427-33.

O'Connell MD, Roberts SA, Srinivas-Shankar U, Tajar A, Connolly MJ, Adams JE, et al. Do the effects of testosterone on muscle strength, physical function, body composition, and quality of life persist six months after treatment in intermediate-frail and frail elderly men? J ClinEndocrinol Metab. 2011;96(2):454-8.

Olefsky J, Farquhar JW, Reaven G.Relationship between fasting plasma insulin level and resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake in normal and diabetic subjects.Diabetes. 1973;22(7):507-13.

Pastrana EA, Saavedra FM, Murray G, Estronza S, et al. Acute Adrenal insufficiency in cervical spinal cord injury. World Neurosurg. 2012;77:561-563.

Roberts D, Lee W, Cuneo RC, Wittmann J, Ward G, et al. Longitudinal study of Bone Turnover after Acute Spinal Cord Injury. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83: 415-422.

Sahota IS, Ravensbergen HR, McGrath MS, Claydon VE. Cerebrovascular responses to orthostatic stress after spinal cord injury. Journal of neurotrauma. 2012;29(15):2446-56.

Sinelnikov AO, Abujudeh HH, Chan D, Novelline RA. CT manifestations of adrenal trauma: experience with 73 cases. Emerg Radiol 2007; 13: 313-318.

Schopp LH, Clark M, Mazurek MO, Hagglund KJ, Acuff ME, Sherman AK, Childers MK. Testosterone levels among men with spinal cord injury admitted to inpatient rehabilitation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2006; 85:678-684.

Shapiro J, Smith B, Beck T, Ballard P, Dapthary M, BrintzenhofeSzoc K, et al. Treatment with zoledronic acid ameliorates negative geometric changes in the proximal femur following acute spinal cord injury. Calcif Tissue Int 2007; 80: 316-22.

Sipski ML. The impact of spinal cord injury on female sexuality, menstruation and pregnancy: a review of the literature. J Am Paraplegia Soc 1991; 14: 122-126.   

Siu SC, Kitzman DW, Sheedy PF, Northcutt RC. Adrenal insufficiency from bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. May Clin Proc 1990; 65: 664-670.

Sonino N, Girelli M, Boscaro M, Fallo F, Busnardo B, et al. Life events in the pathogenesis of Graves’ disease: a controlled study. Acta Endocrinol 1993; 128: 293-296.

Spungen AM, Adkins RH, Stewart CA, Wang J, Pierson RN, et al. Factors influencing body composition in persons with spinal cord injury: A cross-sectional study.  J Appl Physiol  2003; 95: 2398-2407.

Spungen AM, Wang J, Pierson RN, Bauman WA. Soft tissue body composition differences in monozygotic twins discordant for spinal cord injury.  J Appl Physiol  2000; 88: 1310-1315.

Stewart AF, Adler M, Byers CM, Segre GV, Broadus AE. Calcium homeostasis in immobilization.  An example of resorptive hypercalciuria.  New Eng J Med 1982; 306: 1136-1140.

Traish AM, Saad F, Guay A. The dark side of testosterone deficiency: II. Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. J Androl. 2009;30:23-32.

Taskinen S, Taavitsainen M, Wikstrom S. Measurement of Testicular Volume: Comparison of 3 Different Methods.Urol. 1996; 155: 930–933.

Thorner MO, Vance ML, Laws Jr ER, Horvath E, Kovacs K. The Anterior Pituitary in Williams Texbook of Endocrinology, 9th Edition  (JD Wilson, DW Foster, HM Kronenberg, PR Larsen, Ed) W.B.Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1998, p277-286.

Wang C, Crapo LM. The epidemiology of thyroid disease and implications for screening.Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1997;26:189-218.

Wang C, Swerdloff RS, Iranmanesh A, et al. Transdermal testosterone gel improves sexual function, mood, muscle strength, and body composition parameters in hypogonadal men. J Clin EndocrinolMetab. 2000;85:2839-2853.

Wang, YH, Huang TS. Impaired adrenal reserve in men with spinal cord injury: results of low- and high-dose adrenocorticotropin stimulation tests. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999; 80:863-866.

Wilmet E, Ismail AA, Heilporn A, Welraeds D, Bergmann P. Longitudinal study of bone mineral content and of soft tissue composition after spinal cord section. Paraplegia 1995; 33: 674-677.

Zeitzer JM, Ayas NT, Shea SA, Brown R, Czeisler CA. Absence of detectable melatonin and preservation of cortisol and thyrotropin rhythms in tetraplegia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85: 2189-2196.

Zitzmann M, Faber S, Nieschlag E. Association of specific symptoms and metabolic risks with serum testosterone in older men. J ClinEndocrinol Metab. 2006;91:4335-4343.

Zmuda JM, Cauley JA, Kriska A, Glynn NW, Gutai JP, Kuller LH. Longitudinal relation between endogenous testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged men. A 13-year follow-up of former Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial participants. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;146(8):609-17.